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Gynecology manages any disease concerning the conceptive organs; uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ovaries and vagina. A gynecologist may likewise treat related issues in the inside, bladder and urinary framework since these are firmly identified with female conceptive organs. Obstetrics manages the consideration of the pregnant ladies, the unborn infant, work and conveyance and the prompt time frame following labor. The obstetrician guarantees that mother and youngster get the best pre-birth care to guarantee work and conveyance is cultivated without inconveniences and that should mediation be required, it is done rapidly and securely.
*Obstetrical Analgesia and Anaesthesia
*Recent Advances in Gynaecology
*Pregnancy Care and Delivery
Gynaecologic Oncology is a specialized field that deals with cancers pertaining to the female genitalia and reproductive system. Ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer and vulvar cancer are all a part of gynaecologic oncology. Nowadays, cervical cancer is the most talked about gynaecologic cancer caused by Human Papillomavirus. In most of the cases cervical cancer is not even diagnosed in the first stage. It is often diagnosed in the later stages. Doctors nowadays suggest women who are above 40 years of age to go through Pap-smear tests every two years. The rate of survival in case of gynaecologic cancers is higher if it is detected in the early stages of the disease. Chemotherapy and radiations are often used to treat cancers and lesions in the reproductive tract. There are various complications that come in after the patient goes through chemotherapy. The most common gynaecological complications of pelvic radiation are ovarian failure in pre-menopausal women and vaginal stenosis (vs). followed by sexual dysfunction and menopause.
Pediatric gynecology is the medicinal work on managing the strength of the vagina, vulva, uterus, and ovaries of babies, kids, and young people. Its corresponding branch is pediatric andrology, which manages restorative issues explicit to the penis and testicles.
The menstrual cycle is the normal regular change that happens in the female reproductive system (explicitly the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy conceivable. The cycle is required for the creation of oocytes, and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. Up to 80% of ladies report having a few side effects between one to fourteen days before period. The menstrual cycle is represented by hormonal changes. These progressions can be changed by utilizing hormonal contraceptive pills to pregnancy. Each cycle can be categorized into three stages dependent on the changes in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle). The ovarian cycle comprises of the follicular stage, ovulation, and luteal stage while the uterine cycle is separated into the menstrual stage, proliferative stage, and secretory stage.
- Amenorrhoea (absent menstrual periods)
- Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstrual periods)
- Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods)
- Menstrual cycles and Ovulation
- Common Menstrual Problems
- Menopause and the Menstrual cycle
- Abnormal bleeding and Menstrual disorders
Polycystic ovary disorder (PCOS) is a condition in which one in every 10 ladies are commonly influenced. PCOS condition prompts hormonal imbalance in ladies' body and influences the general wellbeing and appearance. PCOS is considered as one of the regular reason for infertility and is treatable. Between 5-10% of ladies with youngster bearing age (15-44) for the most part influenced by PCOS. PCOS, for the most part, influences ovaries, capable to create estrogen and progesterone hormone. PCOS most regularly stays undiscovered. About 70% of ladies influenced by PCOS stay undiscovered. Some regular manifestations of PCOS incorporate Irregular menstrual cycle, hirsutism, Acne, diminishing of hair, abundance Weight increase, darkening of skin and skin labeling. There is no remedy for PCOS, yet drugs are being utilized to deal with the side effects of PCOS.
- PCOS Diagnosis
- PCOS risk of Cancer
- PCOS and Causes
- PCOS Treatment
The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems is known to be reproductive medicine. The point of Reproductive Medicine is to improve and keep up the nature of regenerative wellbeing. The knowledge of reproductive medicine is based on reproductive anatomy, endocrinology, physiology and pathology. If the topic of reproductive medicine is taken into account it can be further subdivided into prenatal medicine and postnatal medicine. The issues addressed in reproductive medicine are sexual education family planning, reproductive system diseases, birth control, infertility and sexual dysfunction. Ovulation, pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and other gynecological problems are also assessed under reproductive medicine. Reproductive toxicology is one of the most important branches of toxicology which deals with the effect of the toxins and the chemical substances on the reproductive system both male and female. It comprises adverse properties on sexual role and fertility in mature males and women, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.
- Regenerative Medicine and Their Application
- Biomarkers in Reproductive Medicine
- Perinatal Medicine
- Prenatal medicine
Removing of the embryo from the uterus before it can continue outside the uterus is called abortion, which terminates the pregnancy. Deliberate removal of the fetus is called as induced abortion and which occurs naturally is termed as Miscarriage. Induced abortion has a negative effect on the ladies health. Because of the termination of pregnancy women faces issues like a high risk of infertility, increase susceptibility to Sexual Transmitted Diseases, Breast Cancer and psychological health. Unsupervised fetus removal once in a while results in death and several complexities.
The contagious etiologies of cervicitis, which are all Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are essentially more typical than the noncontagious causes. Since the female genital tract is adjoining from the vulva to the fallopian tubes, there is some cover among vulvovaginitis and cervicitis; the two conditions are usually sorted as lower genital tract contaminations. C trachomatis disease influences the cervix, urethra, salpinges, uterus, nasopharynx, and epididymis. Pregnant ladies with untreated genital herpes amid the first or second trimester seem to have a more prominent than the two-fold danger of preterm delivery contrasted with ladies not uncovered with herpes.
- Zika Virus
- HIV and AIDS
- Human Papilloma Viruses (HPVs) and Genital Warts
- Genital Herpes
- Hepatitis B & C
Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is an expression basically of Schistosoma haematobium infection. Given the symptoms of FGS, women misunderstood it as a sexually transmitted disease or infertility. Subsequently, for ladies of reproductive age living in territories endemic for S. haematobium, FGS remains widespread and under-analyzed due to the low list of doubt among human services experts. A high file of doubt will permit the finding of FGS pre-operatively and maintain a strategic distance from pointless medical procedure and misdiagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.
Pregnancy and childbirth are exciting events in the life of the woman and the family, however they also necessitate an adjustment, both physical and mental.The information in the website deals with the various related aspects, beginning with the pre-pregnancy period, the prenatal period, childbirth and handling the newborn infant during the first weeks of its life.The information refers to issues such as: prenatal tests, proper nutrition, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, genetic consulting, nursing, infant survey examinations, hospital discharge with the baby and preparation of the domestic environment.
Infections in the female genitalia and the accessory sex organs are commonly and collectively known as Gynaecologic Infectious Diseases. While some of these diseases can be cured easily by the usage of antibiotics while others need to be paid serious attention to while curing them. Some of the infectious diseases are vulvo vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory diseases and sexually transmitted diseases. These diseases can also occur during pregnancy and their severity increases with the progress of pregnancy in most cases. Infections like Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus infection, Rubella, Toxoplasmosis, Hepatitis or Syphilis, Listeriotic, Bacterial Vaginosis can damage the foetus as well affect labour or choice of delivery method. To prevent these kind of diseases, personal hygiene is of utmost importance. All the above-mentioned diseases can be cured by consuming the right dosages of antibiotics like Aminoglycosides, Cephalosporin’s, Metronidazole, Penicillin’s.
*Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases
*Sexually Transmitted Disease
UroGynaecology is a broad subject and is proficient in Gynaecology. It is a careful sub-claim to fame of urology and Gynaecology. UroGynaecology is likewise a subspecialty of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery. UroGynaecology includes finding and treatment of urinary incontinence and female pelvic floor issue. Mechanical helped medical procedure has advanced unfathomably in the course of recent decades with persistently improving innovation, demonstrating to help specialists in numerous gynecologic gatherings around the world.
- Vaginal Agenesis and Vesicovaginal Fistulas
- Urinary Incontinence and Interstitial Cystitis
- Management of the Ureter During Pelvic Surgery
- Complications in Endoscopic Surgery
- Gynecologic and Urology Surgery
Majority of the pregnant women are exposed to medication during pregnancy where it is a special physiological condition where treatment of drug is a vital concern. The physiology of pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of medication. Some medications used by the pregnant women may harm to the fetus along with them. Many medications are taken without the physician’s advice or before recognition of pregnancy. Medications frequently used by the pregnant women are Vitamins, Analgesics, Diuretics, Anti Emetics, sedatives, and laxatives. Medication cannot be avoided totally because some may have chronic prophylactic conditions that require continuous treatment like epilepsy, asthma, and hypertension. The new medical conditions may develop and causes a major problem for childbearing women to take medication whether prescribed, OTC (Over-The-Counter) or Herbal medication. There has been great awareness about toxic effects of medication on the unborn child since Thalidomide periods.
Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve as consultants to ob-gyn physicians and provide pain management for both complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies.An obstetric anesthesiologist's practice may consist largely of managing pain during vaginal deliveries and administering anesthesia for cesarean sections; however, the scope is expanding to involve anesthesia for both maternal as well as fetal procedures. Maternal-specific procedures include cerclage, external cephalic version (ECV), postpartum bilateral tubal ligation (BTL), and dilation and evacuation (D and E). Fetus-specific procedures include fetoscopic laser photocoagulation and ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT).However, the majority of care given by anesthesiologists on most labor and delivery units is management of labor analgesia and anesthesia for cesarean section.
Guthrie Medical Imaging offers a full range of gynecological imaging services to detect disorders of the female reproductive organs, including ovaries and uterus. Gynecological conditions are diagnosed utilizing ultrasound, MRI, computed tomography (CT), and fluoroscopy (hysterosalpinography). Guthrie offers advanced, comprehensive gynecological imaging services at several convenient locations.
Infertility implies not having the capacity to get pregnant. Ladies who can get pregnant yet are unfit to remain pregnant are also considered as infertile. Around 10 percent of ladies (6.1 million) in the United States age 15-44 experience issues getting pregnant or remaining pregnant, as per the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Most instances of female infertility are due to issues with ovulation. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be prepared. A few signs that a lady isn't ovulating regularly incorporate unpredictable or missing periods. Ovulation issues are frequently brought about by polycystic ovarian disorder (PCOS). Reproductive Endocrinology is a sub-division in Gynaecology and Obstetrics which trains professionals in the field of reproductive medicine, hormonal dysfunction during pregnancy as well as it deals with the issue of infertility among couples. Reproductive endocrinologists not only treat people affected by infertility but also treat patients with hormonal dysfunctions. Regulation and proper functioning of the endocrine system is very important for the human body. Improper secretion of hormones leads to many complications in pregnancy. Dysfunction of reproductive hormones is one of the most common reasons for infertility among men and women.
- Infertility Evaluation and Management
- Risk of Idiopathic Male Infertility
- Artificial Gametes and Ovarian Stimulation
- Obesity & Surgical Management of Infertility
- Menstrual Cycle
Methods and devices used to prevent pregnancy are often known as birth control or contraception. Contraception has been in practice since time immemorial, but the modern ways of contraception had come into play in the 20thcentury. Birth control is not only used in cases of unwanted pregnancies, but it is also used in cases where pregnancy is proved to be fatal to the foetus as well as the mother. It also protects people from getting affected by sexually transmitted diseases. Contraception also plays a pivotal role in family planning as well. The world is distinguishing a huge vault over in the development of recent contraceptive technologies and assisted reproductive technologies such as achieving pregnancy in procedures like in vitro fertilization , artificial insemination and surrogacy to fight issues like infertility and its assessment. As discussed in several gynecology events High-risk patients include patients with diseases like hypertension, Sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes and other complications and the advancing trends in contraception and technologies will render a crucial role in regulating a large number of Reproductive Health indicators.
The birth of a baby is a wonderful and very complex process. Many physical and emotional changes occur for both mother and baby.A baby must make many physical adjustments to life outside the mother's body. Leaving the uterus means that a baby can no longer depend on the mother's blood supply and placenta for important body functions. Before birth, the baby depends on functions from the mother. These include breathing, eating, elimination of waste, and immune protection. When a baby leaves the womb, its body systems must change.
Planning and starting a new family is a fantastic experience for any couple but, like anything new, can also be quite daunting. All our doctors have experience in and are very happy to offer prenatal, antenatal and post natal care.Prenatal care includes general health advice for mums and dads-to-be as well as some simple do's and don'ts to try and ensure a healthy pregnancy. For those couples who are finding it difficult to get pregnant we offer early fertility advice and then, if required, can refer on to one of the excellent local fertility specialists. Antenatal care ensures that mum and baby are regularly monitored throughout the pregnancy making sure the pregnancy progresses smoothly and that specialist intervention is sought early if required. Antenatal care usually involves a 'shared care' approach between your GP and the local hospital or private obstetrician. Some couples may elect for all their care to be with a private obstetrician. All the doctors are happy to discuss the various options with you and be involved with your antenatal care from the first positive pregnancy test to your admission to hospital for delivery.
Midwifery is an eclectic field and is professional in gynecology and Number of Research institutes working on the Midwifery are approximately 20 or more as well as some universities are giving training to women to be midwifery and most of midwives are women, total number of universities are approximately 70 which are working on midwives and the funding is around $20000- $30000 and Academia 50% , 40% industry and Others 30% are included in this topic. Midwife is a profession in obstetrics as well. The term midwife is used in refers for both women and men. In Many International & National Gynecology Conferences or Events around the world has included the advancements of Midwifery and has proved to be an essential topic, as per the definition of the WHO and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics: A Midwife is a person who is regularly admitted to a midwifery educational program that is recognized in the country in which it is located, and who has successfully completed the stipulated course of studies in midwifery and has obtained the essential qualifications to be registered and legally licensed to practice midwifery.
- Midwifery Care
- Midwifery in Low Income Countries
- Recent Developments in Midwifery Research
- Midwifery in Multi-Ethnic Community
Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology focuses on conditions of the uterus, ovaries, vagina and vulva. Our team provides comprehensive evaluation and specialized treatment for these conditions in babies, children and teens. Each member of the team is trained in the special needs of growing girls and young women, both medical and emotional. We work closely with many kinds of healthcare providers to care for patients who have medical or developmental issues that can affect their reproductive health.
Gynaecological endoscopy is a surgical discipline which uses optical instruments specially designed to help diagnose the most frequent female disorders and pathologies such as some infertility problems, small vaginal hemorrhages or endometrial polyps among others. Gynaecological endoscopy employs hysteroscopy and laparoscopy for these purposes. Gynaecological endoscopy as we know it is nowadays is possible thanks to important technical advances, along with the sophistication and the miniaturization of the equipment used. Modern anaesthetic medicine has also played an important part in the development of surgical procedures. This medicine is extremely effective, wears off quickly and its side effects have been reduced so that it can be used effectively in ambulatory surgery. Among other advances this made possible the so called minimally invasive surgery which owes its name to the fact that very small incisions are made and the intervention is ambulatory.
Surgical care has been an essential component of health care worldwide for over a century. As the incidences of traumatic injuries, cancers and cardiovascular disease continue to rise, the impact of surgical intervention on public health systems will continue to grow. Surgery is often the only therapy that can alleviate disabilities and reduce the risk of death from common conditions.
- the reported crude mortality rate after major surgery is 0.5-5%;
- complications after inpatient operations occur in up to 25% of patients;
- in industralized countries, nearly half of all adverse events in hospitalized patients are related to surgical care;
- at least half of the cases in which surgery led to harm are considered preventable;
- mortality from general anaesthesia alone is reported to be as high as one in 150 in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa.
The Technology which is used to achieve pregnancy artificially is known as the assisted reproductive technology. Assisted reproductive technology includes procedures namely fertility medication, fertilization (IVF) and surrogacy. ART is primarily used in treating infertility among couples. It belongs mainly to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. ART includes many techniques such as intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryo-preservation, trans-vaginal ovum retrieval, embryo transfer, assisted zona hatching, autologous endometrial co-culture, zygote intra-fallopian transfer, cytoplasmic transfer, egg donors, sperm donors, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, embryo splitting, GIFT, ZIFT, sex selection and surgical sperm retrieval. All these methods are being widely used as problems of infertility are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. While some of these methods are safe but majority of them are harmful to the foetus as the babies are born with birth defects or genetic defects. ART also carries the risk of heterotopic pregnancy. In IVF and ICSI babies are born with low birth weight, decreased expression of proteins in energy metabolism, visual impairment and cerebral palsy. ART procedures in the United States have doubled in the last 10 years with the cost ranging from $2,000 to $30,000. ART procedures should only be performed after examining the medical condition of the couple. Many a times ART proves to be harmful to both the mother and child.
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